A biography of josiah gibbs an american physicist and mathematician

Early years Gibbs in his youth. He graduated innear the top of his class, and was awarded prizes in mathematics and Latin.

A biography of josiah gibbs an american physicist and mathematician

The Gibbs phase rule. MN is the section of the surface of dissipated energy. AD and AE are the energy and entropy of the body in its initial state, AB and AC its available energy Gibbs free energy and its capacity for entropy the amount by which the entropy of the body can be increased without changing the energy of the body or increasing its volume respectively.

Gibbs also wrote on theoretical thermodynamics. Inhe published a paper on the geometric representation of thermodynamic quantities. This paper inspired Maxwell to make with his own hands a plaster cast illustrating Gibbs's construct which he then sent to Gibbs.

Scientific recognition

Yale proudly owns it to this day. From toGibbs combined the ideas of two mathematicians, the quaternions of William Rowan Hamilton and the exterior algebra of Hermann Grassmann to obtain vector analysis independently formulated by the British mathematical physicist and engineer Oliver Heaviside.

Gibbs designed vector analysis to clarify and advance mathematical physics. From toGibbs refined his vector analysis, wrote on opticsand developed a new electrical theory of light.

A biography of josiah gibbs an american physicist and mathematician

He deliberately avoided theorizing about the structure of matter, a wise decision in view of the revolutionary developments in subatomic particles and quantum mechanics that began around the time of his death.

His chemical thermodynamics was a theory of greater generality than any other theory of matter extant in his day. Afterhe worked on statistical mechanicslaying a foundation and "providing a mathematical framework for quantum theory and for Maxwell's theories " [3] He wrote classic textbooks on statistical mechanicswhich Yale published in Gibbs also contributed to crystallography and applied his vector methods to the determination of planetary and comet orbits.

Not much is known about the names and careers of Gibbs's students. Gibbs never married, living all his life in his childhood home with a sister and his brother-in-law, the Yale librarian.

His focus on science was such that he was generally unavailable personally. He had a way, toward the end of the afternoon, of taking a stroll about the streets between his study in the old Sloane Laboratory and his home -- a little exercise between work and dinner -- and one might occasionally come across him at that time.

A biography of josiah gibbs an american physicist and mathematician

Scientific recognition Recognition was slow in coming, in part because Gibbs published mainly in the Transactions of the Connecticut Academy of Sciences, a journal edited by his librarian brother-in-law, little read in the USA and even less so in Europe. At first, only a few European theoretical physicists and chemistssuch as the Scot James Clerk Maxwellpaid any attention to his work.

Only when Gibbs's papers were translated into German then the leading language for chemistry by Wilhelm Ostwald inand into French by Henri Louis le Chatelier indid his ideas receive wide currency in Europe. His theory of the phase rule was experimentally validated by the works of H.

Bakhuis Roozeboomwho showed how to apply it in a variety of situations, thereby assuring it of widespread use. Gibbs was even less appreciated in his native America. Nevertheless, he was recognised as follows: That scientific teaching and research are a fundamental part of the modern university emerged in Germany during the 19th century and only gradually spread from there to the USA.

Gibbs's position at Yale and in American science generally has been described as follows:Josiah Willard Gibbs (February 11, – April 28, ) was an American scientist who made important theoretical contributions to physics, chemistry, and mathematics.

His work on the applications of thermodynamics was instrumental in transforming physical chemistry into a rigorous deductive science. J. Willard Gibbs Josiah Willard Gibbs Born February 11, New Haven, Connecticut April 28, ) was an American theoretical physicist, chemist, and mathematician.

He devised much of the theoretical foundation for chemical Biography Early years Josiah Willard Gibbs - Wikipedia. Josiah Willard Gibbs (February 11, – April 28, ) was an American scientist who made important theoretical contributions to physics, chemistry, and mathematics.

His work on the applications of thermodynamics was instrumental in transforming physical chemistry into a rigorous inductive pfmlures.comtion: Physicist. Josiah Willard Gibbs (February 11, – April 28, ) was an American scientist who made important theoretical contributions to physics, chemistry, and mathematics.

His work on the applications of thermodynamics was instrumental in transforming physical chemistry into a rigorous inductive pfmlures.comal advisor: Hubert Anson Newton. J. Willard Gibbs, in full Josiah Willard Gibbs, (born February 11, , New Haven, Connecticut, U.S.—died April 28, , New Haven), theoretical physicist and chemist who was one of the greatest scientists in the United States in the 19th century.

His application of thermodynamic theory. James Gibbs synonyms, James Gibbs pronunciation, James Gibbs translation, English dictionary definition of James Gibbs.

Josiah Willard American mathematician and physicist who formulated the theoretical foundation of physical chemistry, developed vector analysis.

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