While many academic papers may share similar goals, however, each discipline has unique expectations and requirements for successful writing. For example, writing for a Philosophy course can be very different than writing for English, and writing for a science class can be completely different than writing for a humanities class. First-year composition classes cannot teach students the specific expectations for every discipline—those lessons are best learned while taking classes and completing writing assignments in the many different subject areas in which students take classes.
Unno One of the challenges of writing papers in the humanities is that courses and instructors have different requirements and expectations.
Nevertheless, there are certain things that tend to be consistent across the curriculum, such as focus and simplicity, basic forms of argument, documentation, and writing as a craft.
When you begin to understand these basic elements, then the variety of requirements and expectations will actually become a source of inspiration and wisdom rather than confusion and frustration.
That is because you will begin to understand that they are like variations on a theme. As you master these variations, your repertoire will increase, and you will become like a master musician on paper, freely able to move between genres and styles.
American Academic Writing Conventions This assignment is common in the fields of education and the social sciences. It involves writing Depending on your discipline, you will use either MLA Style (common in English and the humanities), APA Style (common in Education and the Social Sciences), or Chicago Style (common in History and Art). Social Sciences Writing in the Social Sciences Boston University offers general information about writing in Social Science courses. Some General Tips for Writing a Sociology Paper The University of California, Berkeley provides a comprehensive overview, Writing for . The accepted form of academic writing in the social sciences can vary considerable depending on the methodological framework and the intended audience. However, most college-level research papers require careful attention to the following stylistic elements: As a writer, you must take on the role of a good teacher by summarizing a lot of.
Focus and Simplicity Starting with a good focus will help you to keep your paper manageable. If you start with a narrow focus, you can always expand the range of your topic later in the paper.
If, however, you begin with a large topic, you may find that you have taken on too much to cover within the suggested page length. Taking one idea, one passage, or one image from the text as your main focus can provide a very good focus for your paper.
Keeping your prose simple will help you to communicate your ideas directly and effectively.
As a rule, write natural English, don't make your sentences too long, limit the number of ideas per sentence, and don't use too many difficult words. Some people have the impression that academic prose is supposed to be difficult and convoluted - not true!
Use natural English in which your ideas flow in an unforced manner. There are times to use complex sentence constructions and technical terminology, but your use of them will be much more effective if you keep your writing simple and straightforward.
You present the thesis in the introductory or thesis paragraph. Sometimes the thesis is presented in logical form. Other times, it is more indirectly stated, but the direction of the paper should be clear in either case.
The first example below is a thesis paragraph presented very logically. The second example is an introductory paragraph that states its case more indirectly. The two paragraphs make very different arguments.
She bases her views on two fundamental ideas: The plains have a unique place in the United States both geographically and culturally, and they are an indispensable part of the larger interrelated whole called "America.
She is right to identify the characteristics of plains culture and life and to try to relate it to the larger life of the nation. However, she tends to overemphasize the impact that a greater awareness of the plains can have for all Americans.
She describes it as a kind of monastic world in which she has come in contact with her spiritual roots through the lives of the people there, the land, and the solitude of her own inner life.
She does not falsely idealize life on the plains as some kind of paradise away from the urban jungle. In fact, she is critical of the insularity and pettiness of the small towns in which she lives and works.
Rather than detracting from the positive sense of her life there, however, her critical perspectives make her work more real and lead the reader to want to get to know her and the plains better. In some ways, one is like a lawyer who presents a case in a criminal proceeding.
The lawyer makes arguments for his case; that is, he crafts a story, a narrative. His argument will be more convincing the more evidence he is able to collect, but his narrative will be even more compelling if he is also able to take into account counter-evidence.
This doesn't necessarily imply a rigid argument, counter-argument structure. Sometimes, counter-evidence is presented subtly in the form of alternative interpretations and multiple perspectives: Similarly in an academic paper, one might quote a paragraph or simply provide a page reference depending on what is needed.
One place where a legal case differs from the academic paper is that, in the former, the introduction of massive amounts of evidence is often used to confuse or attack a position. In the academic paper, you want to do the opposite: Use an appropriate amount of evidence to tell your story in a compact, concise manner.
As stated earlier, simple, focused prose is the most effective. One of the worst things you can do in writing a paper is to reach the suggested page length by putting in "filler. It may contain some summary of your findings, but it should not merely reiterate your introductory or thesis paragraph.
There are two ways to avoid redundancy. First, since the reader will have gained knowledge from reading the body of your paper, you can state your findings in a more finely nuanced manner than you did at the beginning. Second, there may still be some questions that remain, or your paper may have uncovered additional questions that show the significance of having proposed the thesis in the way you did.American Academic Writing Conventions This assignment is common in the fields of education and the social sciences.
It involves writing Depending on your discipline, you will use either MLA Style (common in English and the humanities), APA Style (common in Education and the Social Sciences), or Chicago Style (common in History and Art).
writing-in-the-disciplines approach, An Insider’s Guide to Academic Writing offers two books in one: an innovative rhetoric of academic writing, and a thematic reader that foregrounds real readings from the disciplines. The rhetoric takes students inside the world of higher education, academic writing, and disciplinary writing.
writing tasks and other activities including at the Byron Writers Festival. Social science students can gain experience in government and community organisations, while social welfare students undertake placements in a range of.
The First Person in Academic Writing Because I Said So: Effective Use of the First-Person Perspective and the Personal Voice in Academic Writing Whether working within scientific disciplines, the social sciences, or the humanities, writers often.
Sciences to the humanities: academic knowledge as a continuum 47 experimental reports: examples from science 49 Representing data and discipline-specific terminology: examples from the social sciences 52 Writing an essay: an example from the humanities 57 exploring writer identity in student academic writing through the first person.
the writer's thinking. If a writer is writing about children, "children" will show up in that slot in the sentence.
If a writer feels it necessary when writing about children to justify how that knowledge is obtained 01' weighed, words like "reason," "claim," .