His doctoral emphasis is sports fitness and health, with a specialization in sport marketing. He currently holds a master of science in recreation and sport management from Indiana State University, a business credential from the Harvard Business School, and is a Stanford Certified Project Manager. These topics include a history of gender equity in sports and Title IX, b gender equity in sport governance, c gender equity issues in athletics, d gender equity, sports participation, and Title IX, e and gender equity in coed sports. For each topic, the author presents an overview as well as a reason for selecting the topic.
His doctoral emphasis is sports fitness and health, with a specialization in sport marketing. He currently holds a master of science in recreation and sport management from Indiana State University, a business credential from the Harvard Business School, and is a Stanford Certified Project Manager.
These topics include a history of gender equity in sports and Title IX, b gender equity in sport governance, c gender equity issues in athletics, d gender equity, sports participation, and Title IX, e and gender equity in coed sports.
For each topic, the author presents an overview as well as a reason for selecting the topic. Further, the author presents information about the importance of each topic to gender equity in sports, plus any relevant social, ethical, or legal concerns.
In recorded history, one can find many accounts of where women faced issues of equity in relationships, their career, education, and athletic opportunities. The purpose of this paper is to explore the history that surrounds the issues of gender equity in sport, what actions have been taken to provide equal opportunity for women in sports, the current issues facing women in sports today, the research surrounding the issues pertaining to gender equity in sport, and also to discuss the findings and present recommendations for further research in this area.
Title IX was initially enacted by the federal government to ensure equal educational opportunities for males and females, but eventually it was used to create equal opportunities for women in sports. Title IX was monumental in increasing the participation of women in sports, but women still face scrutiny and stereotyping because of social norms, which define women as being fragile, less capable, and passive.
Furthermore, sport has always been seen as a masculinized entity, and therefore, women are perceived as intruding on male boundaries.
Recent and past research has shown that having a more balanced male and female board in sports governance contributes to a better work environment. While Title IX has created more opportunities in sport for women, it has done very little to reduce the stereotypical image of women in sports.
Further, it has done little to help establish equal opportunities in sport governance and the pressures women face in a hegemonic masculinized sport organization. It is necessary to reduce the stereotype that women are not equal to men in sports and sports governance because although women are mostly given an equal opportunity, they are still less likely to participate in sports or to be given equal opportunities in sports governance because of gender discrimination and gender stereotypes.
Exceptions to Title IX include educational institutions that traditionally admit members of only one sex, institutions that train individuals for military service, and institutions whose compliance with Title IX would violate religious beliefs Furthermore, it did not specifically refer to athletic opportunities when it was first developed; however, subsequent interpretations and court cases set the tone that opportunities in athletics are also to be upheld to this standard The Three Part Test, issued by the U.
Office of Civil Rights This test 11 presents the following key points: Are participation opportunities substantially proportionate to enrollment? Is there a history and continuing practice of program expansion for the underrepresented sex?
Is the institution fully and effectively accommodating the interests and abilities of the underrepresented sex? Also, as it relates to sports participation, the general rule in both contact and non-contact sports is that when only one team is available, both sexes must be allowed to try out for and play on the team.
Further, the HEW regulations under Title IX permit an athletic department that receives federal funds to maintain separate teams for each sex if selection for the teams is based on competitive skill or if the sport involved is a contact sport Gender Equity in Sport Governance As was previously mentioned, women face gender equity issues as athletes and as sport governance officials.
There is a lack of women in leadership positions in sport due to the fact that sport is a gendered institution and that all processes operate within a hegemonic masculine norm 3. Furthermore, sport institutions have institutionalized masculinity as the operating principle within sport, which identifies male activity as privileged, and reinforcing masculinity and masculine behavior as acceptable leadership qualities required in sport 3.
Therefore, it is said that gender inequality has become an institutionalized practice within sport organizations. Within national Olympic governing bodies NGBs Based on this data, one can see the leadership positions in sports organizations are skewed towards male leadership, and this supports the notion of masculinity in sports as well as masculine leadership in sport.
Based on a study 23 on the influence of hegemonic masculinity on the rate of advancement of women and women in senior leadership positions in intercollegiate athletics, it was found that men maintain control of athletic director positions at the highest level of intercollegiate sport and have higher rates of organizational success.
Another issue affecting gender equity in sports government is the influence of power. One study 5 examined affirmative action policies, and how such policies are interpreted in sport organizations.
Furthermore, recruitment and selection of women included a gender fit, which included that they have no young children, are well educated, held high jobs previously, had flexible schedules, and behaved properly based on the standards of male leaders.
Therefore, it was demonstrated that male leaders use power to ensure that male leadership remains dominant, and the participation of women is limited to those who fit the model of leader as determined by the men on the boards studied. Alongside the theme of masculinity comes the issue of access and treatment discrimination.
These types of discrimination occur at the organizational level and can negatively impact women in leadership positions in sport organizations 3. Access discrimination operates by excluding members of certain groups from entering the organization, while treatment discrimination occurs when individuals from certain groups receive less organizational resources than would be legally deserved 3.Gender inequality in the college party scene.
the party path might not lead to a great college experience, or a promising career. Last June the city council in Holland voted 5-to-4 against adding sexual orientation and gender identity to its local anti-discrimination laws.
Federal and Michigan laws protect residents from discrimination. ATHLETICS RELATED TITLE IX RESOURCES. The following listings include a variety (though not all) of online links to organizations organizations focused on gender equality, so they may also cover athletics.
The last A civil rights advocacy organization for women in US and Olympic sports. 2. Feminist Majority Foundation (FMF). Abstract.
Even though women have gained wide acceptance in the workplace as an equal to men, the field of sports journalism lacks modern gender equality due to the still-evident practice of gender discrimination against women.
Apr 18, · The Truth About Gender Equity In College Sports And The College Athletes' Rights Movement Marc Edelman Contributor i Opinions expressed by Forbes Contributors are their own. Rethinking Gender Equity in Higher Education By: Adriana N. di Bartolo Penny Proud, Lamia Beard, Ty Underwood, Yazmin Vash Payne, Taja DeJesus—all trans .
Before Title IX, women were 2% of the college students participating in sports. In , women were 43% of the college students participating in sports. In raw numbers, we went from 32, to , athletes -- a gain of over %.