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Introduction Migration processes have been existent throughout all times and in all regions of the world. While the original triggering in former times had been the search for more favorable conditions and not yet or only sparsely populated living spaces, patterns of migration underwent many changes since industrialization.
In Europe the period in the 18th century was marked by a migration waves from the countryside to urban areas in unprecedented form and extent. But in comparison to European migration and urbanization processes as we know them the developments in developing countries are of a whole different dimension.
Population and rates of population growth are by far higher than they had been in Europe which leads to increasing dynamic urbanization but also severe side effects. In most of the so-called developing countries employment possibilities and housing facilities are not sufficient at all to absorb the huge influx of people moving into the cities.
While European cities had been able to at least offer enough jobs to incoming migrants many cities in Africa, Latin America or Asia face severe problems like unemployment, poverty, pollution or crime. This paper is going to deal with the pattern of rural-urban migration in general in the first part, followed by some explanations about the special case of China that sets certain criteria to migration, trying to control the movement of its people.
The question behind these topics master thesis statistics pdf free be the following: To what extent is rural-urban migration a desirable phenomenon and how can local authorities intervene? Rural-urban migration is a form of so-called internal migration which means a movement within a country and which stays in contrast to international or intercontinental migration.
It refers to the movement of people from the countryside respectively the rural areas into the cities, often the metropolitan cities of a country. This change of residence is often connected with the migration of labor and a career change from primary to second or third sector - not necessarily, though, as it can refer to the migration of people who are not working in agriculture or farming as well.
It is obvious that these developments always show their two sides: One always has to keep that in mind because interaction, networking and communication between both sides are absolutely necessary in trying to achieve a balanced development of both rural and urban areas c.
They can be seen as a simultaneous analysis of factors that force migrants out of rural areas push-factors and factors that attract migrants to urban areas. Factors and determinants of migration are rather diverse and they can be split up in economic and non-economic reasons: The increasing numbers of people moving towards the large urban areas cause three things to happen.
First - urban growth which means that towns and cities are spatially expanding. Second - urbanization which refers to the fact of a significant increase in the proportion of people living in cities in the total population. Third - rural depopulation which usually means that large numbers of working age people migrate from the countryside to earn more money in the city.
But then they leave behind the very old and the very young, causing further problems in rural development as the young, skilled adults are missing. At the same time it has to be mentioned that rural-urban migration also can have a positive effect on the rural areas namely by the fact that many migrants once settled in a city remit to their family in the rural area of origin - money that could contribute to further development in the village of origin c.
What can be stated at this point is that the attraction to urban areas is high because people think that they will have better opportunities to work there.
Indeed, for some of them life becomes better and living conditions improve. However, a lot of migrants end up in poverty because many cities are not able to absorb the large influx of new residents in a proper way.
This leads to the association of rural-urban-migration with problems like poverty, insufficient sanitary conditions, sub-standard housing, growth of slums and shanty towns increasing air pollution, congestion, crime or insecurity. Which of these factors are more challenging and urgent is regionally different for instance, China quotes air pollution, crime and congestion as negative consequences whereas Ghana presents slums, poverty and lower quantity and quality as the main issues.
Obviously, there is no universally valid evidence possible about the question who migrates most.
Still the migration decision has shown to be somehow selective in society. Additionally the internal migration has a gender aspect in many countries as most migrants are young male adults.The Importance of Sustainable Business Practices in the Viennese Accommodation Industry Submitted by Marita Raderbauer to the University of Exeter as a thesis for the degree of Master of Sciences September This study investigates the importance .
i Acknowledgements My master thesis is based on the organic consumer research carried out by the Institute for Agricultural Policy and Agricultural Markets in University of Hohenheim, during. Texas A&M University-Commerce offers over 50% and, in some cases, entire degree programs, in an online format.
If you are looking to earn a degree and need to maintain a flexible schedule, below are degree programs that would be a great opportunity for you. Writing the Thesis pg. 1 Writing the Thesis Mark C. Griffin, Department of Anthropology, San Francisco State University, San The culmination of the M.A.
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Students who wish to write a Master’s Thesis should obtain the specific format guidelines for writing a thesis from the University’s Thesis office. The “new evidence” here may involve looking up statistics and/or systematic examination of statistics or qualitative evidence reported in earlier studies.
Writing A Master’s.