Gender inequality in India Secondary education covers children aged 12 to 18, a group comprising 8. The two halves of secondary education are each an important stage for which a pass certificate is needed, and thus are affiliated by central boards of education under HRD ministry, before one can pursue higher education, including college or professional courses.
Disclaimer Postpartum depression in India: Independent Researcher, New Delhi, India. Correspondence to Ravi Prakash Upadhyay email: Bulletin of the World Health Organization ; A systematic review of 47 studies in 18 countries reported a prevalence of Addressing these issues is therefore a priority for national governments and their international partners.
The impetus for this will come from reliable scientific evidence of the burden of mental health problems and their adverse consequences. Dedicated maternal mental health services are largely deficient in health-care facilities, and health workers lack mental health training.
The availability of mental health specialists is limited or non-existent in peripheral health-care facilities. Despite the growing number of empirical studies on postpartum depression in India, there is a lack of robust systematic evidence that looks not only at the overall burden of postpartum depression, but also its associated risk factors.
Our current understanding of the epidemiology of postpartum depression is largely dependent on a few regional studies, with very few nationwide data. The current review was done to fill this gap, by providing an updated estimate of the burden of postpartum depression in India, to synthesize the important risk factors and to provide evidence-based data for prioritization of maternal mental health care.
Any discrepancy in the search results was planned to be discussed with a third author AKR. We also searched the bibliographies of included articles and government reports on government websites to identify relevant primary literature to be included in the final analysis. For studies with missing data or requiring clarification, we contacted the principal investigators.
Original research; published in the past 15 years; humans Study selection and data extraction For a study to be included in the systematic review, it had to be original research done in India, within a cross-sectional framework of a few weeks to 1 year post-birth.
We excluded research done in a specific population, such as mothers living with human immunodeficiency virus; research including mothers with any current chronic disease. To have a fairly recent estimate of the burden of postpartum depression, we considered only studies published from the year and later.
After initial screening of titles and abstracts, we reviewed the full text of eligible publications. Decisions about inclusion of studies and interpretation of data were resolved by discussion among the reviewers.
Data from all studies meeting the inclusion criteria were extracted and tabulated. The selection category consists of parameters, such as representativeness of the sample, adequacy of the sample size, non-response rate and use of a validated measurement tool to gather data on exposure.
The comparability category examines whether subjects in different outcome groups are comparable based on the study design and analysis and whether confounding factors were controlled for or not.
The outcome category includes whether data on outcome s were collected by independent blind assessment, through records or by self-reporting. The outcome category also includes whether the statistical tests used to analyse data were clearly described and whether these tests were appropriate or not.
In case of any discrepancy, a third author AP was consulted. Data analysis We did a meta-analysis of the reported prevalence of postpartum depression in the included studies. Heterogeneity between studies was quantified by the I2 statistic.
In addition, the Edinburgh postnatal depression scale, which was used in the majority of studies we identified, can give false-positive results in the early postpartum period.
We also did separate subgroup analyses on each of the following factors: Not all the studies provided data on the mean age of the study participants that was required for subgroup analysis; however, the proportion of mothers in specific age ranges were available. Using this information, we estimated the mean age of the study participants.
For studies that reported the prevalence of postpartum depression in mothers at different time points, we used the prevalence reported in the earliest time point to reduce the effect of lost to follow-up. We used meta-regression analysis to identify factors contributing to the heterogeneity in effect size, i.
Education in the Epics. Takshashila was a noted center of learning. The story is told of one of its teachers named Dhaumya who, had . Challenging Issues of Tribal Education in India Dr. KabitaKumariSahu Lecturer in Economics, North Orissa University Baripada, Odisha Abstract: The objective of the paper is to analyse the status of tribal education with literacy rate, gross enrolment ratio, dropout rates and Gender Parity Index in India. Time-Table of Examination TIME: A.M – A.M AND P.M – P.M COURSE NAME: SHIFT:: DATE:: SUBJECT(S) In view of the admission programmes in various universities and institutions .
We assessed publication bias with the Egger test and used a funnel plot to graphically represent the bias.Education: Education, discipline that is concerned with methods of teaching and learning in schools or school-like environments as opposed to various nonformal and informal means of socialization (e.g., rural development projects and education through parent-child relationships).
Education can be thought of. II. Literature Review The review of literature is divided into six parts namely History of education, Literacy Rate in India, Growth of Schools, Enrolment Ratio, Students-Teacher Ratio and Quality of Education.
Review of Literature: The study “A study on opinions of regular primary school teachers towards inclusive education of children with mental retardation” (2), was conducted in Kerala to find out the opinions of regular primary school.
The Literature Review: A Step-by-Step Guide for Students and millions of other books are available for Amazon Kindle. Learn more. The Lie of Imperialism Exposed in Literature - If postcolonial literature is the “process of dialogue and necessary correction,” of misconceptions concerning colonialism, then a comparative study of colonial and postcolonial works is essential for attaining a full understanding of the far-reaching effects of European imperialism (Groden and .
Chapter 3 Review of Literature. 32 higher education in India was started in with the inception of universities in the three presidency towns like Madras, Bombay & Calcutta. At present, India possesses a highly developed higher education system which offers facility of education and.