Also known as a budget detail, budget description, or budget justification, the budget narrative explains what the numbers in the budget table or spreadsheet represent and how you arrived at them. Along with the budget, the budget narrative tells a funder exactly how a nonprofit will spend its investment, item by item. You did your research and that your project costs are reasonable and well thought out. The sooner you start it, the better, is our advice to clients.
UER Before an article, report, or brief is accepted into the Undergraduate Engineering Review, the author must first submit a proposal that specifies the importance of the research, the scope and limitations of the research, and the methods for the research.
Unfortunately, nuclear fission, the process used to create this large amount energy, creates significant amounts of high level radioactive waste. More than 30, metric tons of nuclear waste have arisen from U.
Because of the build-up of this waste, some power plants will be forced to shut down. To avoid losing an important source of energy, a safe and economical place to keep this waste is necessary. This document proposes a literature review of whether Yucca Mountain is a suitable site for a nuclear waste repository.
The proposed review will discuss the economical and environmental aspects of a national storage facility. This proposal includes my methods for gathering information, a schedule for completing the review, and my qualifications. However, the DOE is undecided on where to put this high level radioactive waste.
Yucca Mountain, located in Nevada, is a proposed site. There are many questions regarding the safety of the Yucca Mountain waste repository. Researchers at Los Alamos National Laboratory disagree over the long-term safety of the proposed high level nuclear waste site located in Nevada.
InCharles Bowman, a researcher at Los Alamos, developed a theory claiming that years of storing waste in the mountain may actually start a nuclear chain reaction and explode, similar to an atomic bomb [Taubes, ]. The stir caused by theory suggests that researchers have not explored all sides of the safety issue concerning potentially hazardous situations at Yucca Mountain.
A critical mass is an amount of fissile material, such as plutonium, containing enough mass to start a neutron chain reaction [Murray, ]. Bowman argues that if this chain reaction were started underground, the rocks in the ground would help keep the system compressed and speed up the chain reaction [Taubes, ].
A chain reaction formed underground could then generate huge amounts of energy in a fraction of a second, resulting in a nuclear blast.
A nuclear explosion of this magnitude would emit large amounts of radioactivity into the air and ground water.
Another safety concern is the possibility of a volcanic eruption in Yucca Mountain. The long-term nuclear waste storage facility needs to remain stable for at least 10, years to allow the radioactive isotopes to decay to natural levels [Clark, ].
There are at least a dozen young volcanoes within 40 kilometers of the proposed Yucca Mountain waste site [Weiss, ]. The proximity of Yucca Mountain to these volcanoes makes it possible to have a volcanic eruption pass through the spent fuel waste repository.
Such a volcanic eruption could release damaging amounts of radioactivity to the environment. Objectives I propose to review the available literature about using Yucca Mountain as a possible repository for spent nuclear fuel.
In this review I will achieve the following two goals: According to the Department of Energy DOEa repository for high-level radioactive waste must meet several criteria including safety, location, and economics [Roush, ].
Safety includes not only the effect of the repository on people near the site, but also people along the transportation routes to the site. In my research I will consider both groups of people. As far as location, a waste site cannot be in an area with a large population or near a ground water supply.
Also, because one of the most significant factors in determining the life span of a possible repository is how long the waste storage canisters will remain in tact, the waste site must be located in a dry climate to eliminate the moisture that can cause the waste canisters to corrode.
The economics involved in selecting a site is another criterion. For that reason, much pressure exists to select Yucca Mountain as a repository site; otherwise, this money would have been wasted.
Other costs, though, have to be considered. For instance, how economical is it to transport radioactive waste across several states to a single national site? I will try to account for as many of these other costs as possible. After explaining the criteria, I will assess how well Yucca Mountain meets those criteria.Research proposal is contains a proposed research project that provides its aims and objectives, methodology to achieve the goals, time frame to finish the project, the results of the research .
Writing a Research Proposal Haas Scholars Program Guidelines Using these guidelines effectively These guidelines are intended to help you create an initial draft of your. The University of Maryland, Baltimore (UMB) is the state’s public health, law, and human services university devoted to excellence in professional and graduate education, research.
Your research proposal should describe the question you are asking and contextualize the central issue by providing background research.
The significance and implications of the research should describe how it connects to a larger body of knowledge, as well as the connection to your academic goals and personal ambitions. The Foundation does not make grants to projects in the creative or performing arts except when those projects are related to educating the public about science, technology, or economics.
Format for a quantitative research proposal. I teach quantitative research proposal writing to public health students. By using lectures, a case study and discussion of presentations of the students own research proposals, I try to familiarize them with the contents of a research proposal .